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Background Knowledge
    • Summary:

      Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds, contaminating a wide range of crop plants and fruits before or after harvest, the most important mycotoxins being: Aflatoxins, Deoxynivalenol, Ochratoxin A, Fumonisins, Zearalenone, Patulin and T-2 Toxin. The acu...

    • Summary:

      Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species like A. flavus or A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 and the hydroxylated metabolite M1 are of primary interest, with aflatoxin B1 the most frequently occurring of these.

    • Summary:

      Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species such as F. moniliforme and F. proliferatum. Corn is the commodity mainly affected. Conditions favoring Fumonisins formation are drought stress followed by warm, wet weather.

    • Summary:

      OchratoxinA,B,andCaremycotoxinsproducedbysomeAspergillusspeciesandPeniciliumspecies,likeA.ochraceusorP.viridicatum,withochratoxinAasthemostprevalentandrelevantfungaltoxinofthisgroup.OchratoxinAisknowntooccurincommoditiessuchascereals,coffee,driedfruitandredwin...

    • Summary:

      Zearalenone is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species like F. graminearum. It mainly occurs in grains and cereal products. Zearalenone is not acutely toxic but is a problem because of its estrogenic effects on mammals. The negative effects on reproductive sy...

    • Summary:

      Patulin is produced by Penicillium species and Aspergillus species Contamination with this mycotoxin mainly occurs on damaged or rotting fruits such as apples, pears, peaches and grapes. Patulin is suspected to be carcinogen.

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